Realistic methods are required to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the iron and steel industry. The technology for using hydrogen to reduce iron oxide to iron has been available for 30 years. The economic barrier is the cost of hydrogen production using solar energy to electrolyse water. Is there another method and will the iron ore export business be a continuing economic boom for Australia at the current grades and with increased environmental pressures? Will the JK skills be needed to beneficiate the Pilbara iron ores and to improve the efficiency of metallurgical coal usage?